Cecil Plains is a town in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia. The town is located in the Millmerran Shire, 217 kilometres west of the state capital, Brisbane. At the 2001 census, Cecil Plains had a population of 265. The fertile black soil around Cecil Plains is ideal for cotton production and the town is now the home of one of the largest cotton gins in the southern hemisphere.
European settlement in the area began in 1842, when Henry Stuart Russell claimed land around the Condamine River to establish Cecil Plains station. The site of the station homestead was to become the site of the town. Ludwig Leichhardt used the homestead as a base for two expeditions into the surrounding region in 1844 and 1847. The station originally grazed cattle but later moved to wool production.
In 1916, Cecil Plains station was acquired by the Queensland government and subdivided for closer settlement, with some parcels reserved for soldier settlers. The new settlers produced mainly wheat and dairy. The railway arrived in 1919, followed by a post office in 1921 and a police station in 1934. The local pub is called the Victory Hotel, as a result of a successful vote in 1938 (on the third attempt) to establish a drinking establishment in the town. From the 1960s cotton became the main crop grown in the area.
The railway arrived in 1919 and while it changed the quality of life for the residents in the area it did little to increase the size of the town. The post office was established at the railway station in 1921 and a police station was built in 1934.